1Department of Geography, Northumbria University, Newcastle upon Tyne, NE1 8ST, UK
2Climate Research Division, Environment Canada, Toronto, Canada
3National Centre for Earth Observation, University of Reading, Reading, RG6 6AL, UK
anow at: CORES Science and Engineering Limited, Victoria Garesfield, UK
Received: 06 Oct 2015 – Discussion started: 02 Nov 2015
Abstract. The microstructure and density of ice layers in snowpacks is poorly quantified. Here we present a new field method for measuring the density of ice layers caused by melt or rain-on-snow events. The method was used on 87 ice layer samples taken from natural and artificial ice layers in the Canadian Arctic and mid-latitudes. Mean measured ice layer density was 909 ± 28 kg m−3 with a standard deviation of 23 kg m−3, significantly higher than values typically used in the literature.
Revised: 28 Jul 2016 – Accepted: 15 Aug 2016 – Published: 14 Sep 2016
Watts, T., Rutter, N., Toose, P., Derksen, C., Sandells, M., and Woodward, J.: Brief communication: Improved measurement of ice layer density in seasonal snowpacks, The Cryosphere, 10, 2069-2074, doi:10.5194/tc-10-2069-2016, 2016.