1University of Oxford, Oxford, UK
2University of British Columbia, BC, Canada
Received: 18 Oct 2016 – Discussion started: 19 Oct 2016
Abstract. Polythermal ice sheets and glaciers contain both cold ice and temperate ice. We present two new models to describe the temperature and water content of such ice masses, accounting for the possibility of gravity- and pressure-driven water drainage according to Darcy's law. Both models are based on the principle of energy conservation; one additionally invokes the theory of viscous compaction to calculate pore water pressure, and the other involves a modification of existing enthalpy gradient methods to include gravity-driven drainage. The models self-consistently predict the evolution of temperature in cold ice and of water content in temperate ice. Numerical solutions are described, and a number of illustrative test problems are presented, allowing comparison with existing methods. The suggested models are simple enough to be incorporated in existing ice-sheet models with little modification.
Revised: 21 Dec 2016 – Accepted: 02 Jan 2017 – Published: 15 Feb 2017
Hewitt, I. J. and Schoof, C.: Models for polythermal ice sheets and glaciers, The Cryosphere, 11, 541-551, doi:10.5194/tc-11-541-2017, 2017.