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The Cryosphere (TC) and its discussion forum The Cryosphere Discussions (TCD) offer an efficient new way of publishing special issues for measurement campaigns, conferences, etc. The individual papers are peer-reviewed and published as soon as they are available in regular issues; they are then labelled as part of the special issue and linked electronically.
The specific advantages are the following:
A special issue can comprise any number of journals, and the special issue editors can be the same or different and from different journals. The manuscript processing follows the standard special issue procedure of the journal in which the manuscript is submitted. Afterwards, all published papers are co-listed on a joint special issue web page (in addition to the regular chronological volume of each journal).
To make arrangements for a special issue, please contact one of the TC editors covering the relevant subject areas and one of the TC co-editors-in-chief (see editorial board and journal subject areas). Please provide the following information:
The following special issues are scheduled for publication in TC and its discussion forum TCD:
This special issue, spanning four Copernicus journals, tallies the current understanding of the cryosphere–carbon–climate (CCC) interactions in the East Siberian Arctic Ocean (ESAO) and related areas.
The ESAO is the largest shelf sea system of the World Ocean. It is perennially ice-covered, receives inflow from large rivers, hosts most of the Arctic subsea permafrost and shallow gas hydrates, and is one of the areas that have been experiencing the largest warming in recent decades. Despite its importance to a wide range of geoscience issues, this system has historically been only sparsely investigated. There has however been a number of major expeditions to the region in recent years, including the 90-day icebreaker-based SWERUS-C3 expedition in summer 2014. The current interest in the past, present and future functioning of this system makes it ripe for a major special issue.
Carbon/methane from this area may be remobilized and interact with large-scale biogeochemical cycles and the climate. The history of the ESAO cryosphere also includes the question of Pleistocene ice sheet extents, and the region has experienced one of the largest summer sea ice reductions in the Arctic Ocean during the last decades, with implications for ocean and atmospheric circulation, air–sea interactions and marine life, as well as erosional release of coastal permafrost carbon and sediment dynamics. Stimulated by recent field campaigns such as SWERUS-C3, submissions will be encouraged from all known programmes, spanning from deep geology, via permafrost carbon release and land–shelf–basin interactions, to palaeoglaciology, as well as a wide range of ocean and atmosphere processes. The aim of the special issues is to provide a well-contained collection of improved understanding of the ESAO-CCC interactions from geological timescales to contemporary processes to projections of future trajectories.
The special issue is open for all submissions within its scope (contingent on the chief editor's decision).
Quantitative measurements of snow properties are essential to understand snow metamorphism, the formation of natural hazards and all components of the radiation balance (albedo, microwave brightness temperature and backscatter, mass and heat transfer)and their impact on climate, as well as the interaction of the snowpack with its environment. The past 10 years have seen a rapid development of new techniques beyond the traditional methods described in Fierz et al., 2009, International Classification for Seasonal Snow on the Ground. Results from three workshops held in 2013 and 2014 (IACS Snow Grain Size Workshop – Measurements and Applications, April 2013, Grenoble, France; Intercomparison of Snow Grain Size Measurements Workshop, March, 2014, Davos, Switzerland and August, 2014, Reading, UK) built the foundation for this special issue. Goals of the workshops included proposing a more precise definition of "snow grain size" and the possible substitution of this term with "specific surface area" for its use in quantitative applications, and the comparison of direct and indirect methods of measuring snow "grain size" including the following: micro-tomography, BET adsorption method, casting methods, spectroscopic methods (e.g. using 1030 nm absorption feature), near-infrared photography, direct optical methods (e.g. based on 1310 nm reflectance), high resolution penetrometry (e.g. SnowMicroPen), traditional grain size observation and macroscopic grain size photography. Other variables characterizing the snow microstructure (density, thermal conductivity, others) are also concerned.
The goal of this special issue is to build an evolving volume of refereed and high-quality contributions to snow measurement methods and quantitative snow characterization. Such a volume will serve as a unique open reference to the fast evolving field in snow measurement techniques and snow microstructure characterization.
This special issue invites submissions reporting on results obtained in these workshops and beyond, also including studies relevant to the objective of this special issue but carried out independently.
Solid precipitation is one of the more complex atmospheric variables to be observed and measured by automatic sensors and systems. Since the WMO Solid Precipitation Measurement Inter-comparison of 1989-1993 (WMO CIMO IOM Report No. 67, WMO/TD-No. 872, 1998), significant advancements have been made in developing automatic instruments for measuring solid precipitation and snow on the ground. New non-catchment type techniques are increasingly used operationally for measuring solid precipitation, e.g. light scattering, microwave backscatter, mass and heat transfer. In parallel, the traditional techniques, tipping bucket and weighing type gauges, have new features (heating, temperature compensation, software corrections), which further diversify the range of data obtain with such instruments. New and emerging applications (e.g., climate change, nowcasting, water supply budgets, avalanche forecast and warnings, satellite ground validation, etc.) require precipitation data of increased accuracy and increased temporal and spatial resolution. A large variety of automatic instruments are being used for measuring solid precipitation, worldwide, including within the same country. This variety exceeds by far the existing range of manual standard precipitation gauges (Goodison et al., 1998).
The Solid Precipitation Intercomparison Experiment (WMO SPICE) commenced in 2011, being endorsed at the Sixteenth Congress of the World Meteorological Organization (WMO). SPICE is organized by the Commission for Instruments and Methods of Observation (CIMO) of WMO. Building on the results and recommendations of previous studies and intercomparisons, the mission of SPICE is to investigate and report the measurement and reporting of:
a) Precipitation amount, over various time periods (minutes, hours, days, season), as a function of the precipitation phase, with a focus on solid precipitation;
b) Snow on the ground (snow depth); as snow depth measurements are closely tied to snowfall measurements, the intercomparison will investigate the linkages between them.
The SPICE experiments are organized as simultaneous field tests in a range of climate conditions, over several winter seasons, in the Northern and Southern hemispheres, which have started in December 2012, and continuing until the end of the winter season 2015.
The Inter-Journal WMO SPICE Special Issue invites submissions directly reporting on results obtained within the WMO SPICE project and beyond, including studies relevant to WMO SPICE objectives but carried out independently, and studies focusing on application of WMO SPICE outcomes, such as cold region climate change, snow hydrology, remote sensing of snow cover and snowfall, and land surface modeling over the cold/high latitude regions.