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Volume 10, issue 6
The Cryosphere, 10, 2731–2744, 2016
https://doi.org/10.5194/tc-10-2731-2016
© Author(s) 2016. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
The Cryosphere, 10, 2731–2744, 2016
https://doi.org/10.5194/tc-10-2731-2016
© Author(s) 2016. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.

Research article 16 Nov 2016

Research article | 16 Nov 2016

Simulating ice layer formation under the presence of preferential flow in layered snowpacks

Nander Wever et al.
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Cited articles  
Albert, M., Koh, G., and Perron, F.: Radar investigations of melt pathways in a natural snowpack, Hydrol. Process., 13, 2991–3000, https://doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1099-1085(19991230)13:18<2991::AID-HYP10>3.0.CO;2-5, 1999.
Avanzi, F., Hirashima, H., Yamaguchi, S., Katsushima, T., and De Michele, C.: Observations of capillary barriers and preferential flow in layered snow during cold laboratory experiments, The Cryosphere, 10, 2013–2026, https://doi.org/10.5194/tc-10-2013-2016, 2016.
Bartelt, P. and Lehning. M.: A physical SNOWPACK model for the Swiss avalanche warning Part I: Numerical model, Cold Reg. Sci. Technol., 35, 123–145, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0165-232X(02)00074-5, 2002.
Brun, E., David, P., Sudul, M., and Brunot, G.: A numerical model to simulate snow-cover stratigraphy for operational avalanche forecasting, J. Glaciol., 38, 13–22, 1992.
Calonne, N., Geindreau, C., Flin, F., Morin, S., Lesaffre, B., Rolland du Roscoat, S., and Charrier, P.: 3-D image-based numerical computations of snow permeability: links to specific surface area, density, and microstructural anisotropy, The Cryosphere, 6, 939–951, https://doi.org/10.5194/tc-6-939-2012, 2012.
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The study presents a dual domain approach to simulate liquid water flow in snow using the 1-D physics based snow cover model SNOWPACK. In this approach, the pore space is separated into a part for matrix flow and a part that represents preferential flow. Using this approach, water can percolate sub-freezing snow and form dense (ice) layers. A comparison with snow pits shows that some of the observed ice layers were reproduced by the model while others remain challenging to simulate.
The study presents a dual domain approach to simulate liquid water flow in snow using the 1-D...
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