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The Cryosphere An interactive open-access journal of the European Geosciences Union
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Volume 10, issue 3
The Cryosphere, 10, 961-976, 2016
https://doi.org/10.5194/tc-10-961-2016
© Author(s) 2016. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
The Cryosphere, 10, 961-976, 2016
https://doi.org/10.5194/tc-10-961-2016
© Author(s) 2016. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.

Research article 11 May 2016

Research article | 11 May 2016

A synthetic ice core approach to estimate ion relocation in an ice field site experiencing periodical melt: a case study on Lomonosovfonna, Svalbard

Carmen P. Vega1, Veijo A. Pohjola1, Emilie Beaudon2,a, Björn Claremar1, Ward J. J. van Pelt1, Rickard Pettersson1, Elisabeth Isaksson3, Tõnu Martma4, Margit Schwikowski5, and Carl E. Bøggild6,b Carmen P. Vega et al.
  • 1Department of Earth Sciences, Uppsala University, Villavägen 16, 752 36 Uppsala, Sweden
  • 2Arctic Centre, University of Lapland, 96101 Rovaniemi, Finland
  • 3Norwegian Polar Institute, Fram Centre 9296 Tromsø, Norway
  • 4Institute of Geology, Tallinn University of Technology, 19086 Tallinn, Estonia
  • 5Paul Scherrer Institute, 5232 Villigen PSI, Switzerland
  • 6The University Centre in Svalbard, UNIS, Pb. 156 9171, Longyearbyen, Norway
  • anow at: Byrd Polar and Climate Research Center, 082A Scott Hall, 1090 Carmack Road, Columbus, OH 43210-1002, USA
  • bnow at: Arctic Technology Centre, Technical University of Denmark, Kemitorvet, Bygning 204, 2800 Kgs. Lyngby, Denmark

Abstract. Physical and chemical properties of four different ice cores (LF-97, LF-08, LF-09 and LF-11) drilled at Lomonosovfonna, Svalbard, were compared to investigate the effects of meltwater percolation on the chemical and physical stratigraphy of these records. A synthetic ice core approach was employed as reference record to estimate the ionic relocation and meltwater percolation length at this site during the period 2007–2010. Using this method, a partial ion elution sequence obtained for Lomonosovfonna was NO3>SO42−, Mg2+, Cl, K+, Na+ with nitrate being the most mobile within the snowpack. The relocation length of most of the ions was on the order of 1m during this period. In addition, by using both a positive degree day (PDD) and a snow–energy model approaches to estimate the percentage of melt at Lomonosovfonna, we have calculated a melt percentage (MP) of the total annual accumulation within the range between 48 and 70%, for the period between 2007 and 2010, which is above the MP range suggested by the ion relocation evidenced in the LF-syn core (i.e., MP = 30%). Using a firn-densification model to constrain the melt range, a MP of 30% was found over the same period, which is consistent with the results of the synthetic ice core approach, and a 45% of melt for the last 60 years. Considering the ionic relocation lengths and annual melt percentages, we estimate that the atmospheric ionic signal remains preserved in recently drilled Lomonosovfonna ice cores at an annual or bi-annual resolution when weather conditions were similar to those during the 2007–2010 period.

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To quantify post-depositional relocation of major ions by meltwater in snow and firn at Lomonosovfonna, Svalbard, consecutive ice cores drilled at this site were used to construct a synthetic core. The relocation length of most of the ions was on the order of 1 m between 2007 and 2010. Considering the ionic relocation lengths and annual melt percentages, we estimate that the atmospheric ionic signal remains preserved in recently drilled Lomonosovfonna ice cores at an annual or bi-annual resolution.
To quantify post-depositional relocation of major ions by meltwater in snow and firn at...
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