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Volume 12, issue 1 | Copyright

Special issue: International Partnerships in Ice Core Sciences (IPICS) Second...

The Cryosphere, 12, 325-341, 2018
https://doi.org/10.5194/tc-12-325-2018
© Author(s) 2018. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.

Research article 26 Jan 2018

Research article | 26 Jan 2018

Surface formation, preservation, and history of low-porosity crusts at the WAIS Divide site, West Antarctica

John M. Fegyveresi1,2, Richard B. Alley2, Atsuhiro Muto3, Anaïs J. Orsi4, and Matthew K. Spencer5 John M. Fegyveresi et al.
  • 1Terrestrial and Cryospheric Sciences Branch, US Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory (CRREL), Hanover, NH 03755, USA
  • 2Dept. of Geosciences, and Earth and Environmental Systems Institute, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802, USA
  • 3Dept. of Earth and Environmental Science, College of Science and Technology, Temple University, Philadelphia, PA 19122, USA
  • 4Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l'Environnement, LSCE/IPSL, CEA-CNRS-UVSQ, Université Paris-Saclay, 91191, Gif-sur-Yvette, France
  • 5School of Physical Sciences, Lake Superior State University, Sault Sainte Marie, MI 49783, USA

Abstract. Observations at the West Antarctic Ice Sheet (WAIS) Divide site show that near-surface snow is strongly altered by weather-related processes such as strong winds and temperature fluctuations, producing features that are recognizable in the deep ice core. Prominent glazed surface crusts develop frequently at the site during summer seasons. Surface, snow pit, and ice core observations made in this study during summer field seasons from 2008–2009 to 2012–2013, supplemented by automated weather station (AWS) data with short- and longwave radiation sensors, revealed that such crusts formed during relatively low-wind, low-humidity, clear-sky periods with intense daytime sunshine. After formation, such glazed surfaces typically developed cracks in a polygonal pattern likely from thermal contraction at night. Cracking was commonest when several clear days occurred in succession and was generally followed by surface hoar growth; vapor escaping through the cracks during sunny days may have contributed to the high humidity that favored nighttime formation of surface hoar. Temperature and radiation observations show that daytime solar heating often warmed the near-surface snow above the air temperature, contributing to upward mass transfer, favoring crust formation from below, and then surface hoar formation. A simple surface energy calculation supports this observation. Subsequent examination of the WDC06A deep ice core revealed that crusts are preserved through the bubbly ice, and some occur in snow accumulated during winters, although not as commonly as in summertime deposits. Although no one has been on site to observe crust formation during winter, it may be favored by greater wintertime wind packing from stronger peak winds, high temperatures and steep temperature gradients from rapid midwinter warmings reaching as high as −15°C, and perhaps longer intervals of surface stability. Time variations in crust occurrence in the core may provide paleoclimatic information, although additional studies are required. Discontinuity and cracking of crusts likely explain why crusts do not produce significant anomalies in other paleoclimatic records.

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Observations at the WAIS Divide site in West Antarctica show that near-surface snow is strongly altered by weather-related processes, such as strong winds and temperature fluctuations, producing features that are recognizable within the WDC06A ice core. Specifically, over 10 000 prominent crusts were observed in the upper 560 m of the core. We show that these crusts develop more often in summers, during relatively low-wind, low-humidity, clear-sky periods with intense daytime sunshine.
Observations at the WAIS Divide site in West Antarctica show that near-surface snow is strongly...
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