Journal cover Journal topic
The Cryosphere An interactive open-access journal of the European Geosciences Union
The Cryosphere, 4, 453-465, 2010
© Author(s) 2010. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
Research article
26 Oct 2010
Freshwater flux to Sermilik Fjord, SE Greenland
S. H. Mernild1, I. M. Howat2, Y. Ahn2, G. E. Liston3, K. Steffen4, B. H. Jakobsen5, B. Hasholt5, B. Fog5, and D. van As6 1Climate, Ocean, and Sea Ice Modeling Group, Computational Physics and Methods (CCS-2), Los Alamos National Laboratory, New Mexico, USA
2Byrd Polar Research Center and School of Earth Sciences, Ohio State University, Ohio, USA
3Cooperative Institute for Research in the Atmosphere, Colorado State University, Colorado, USA
4Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences, University of Colorado, Colorado, USA
5Department of Geography and Geology, University of Copenhagen, Denmark
6Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland, Denmark
Abstract. Terrestrial inputs of freshwater flux to Sermilik Fjord, SE Greenland, were estimated, indicating ice discharge to be the dominant source of freshwater. A freshwater flux of 40.4 ± 4.9×109 m3 y−1 was found (1999–2008), with an 85% contribution originated from ice discharge (65% alone from Helheim Glacier), 11% from terrestrial surface runoff (from melt water and rain), 3% from precipitation at the fjord surface area, and 1% from subglacial geothermal and frictional melting due to basal ice motion. The results demonstrate the dominance of ice discharge as a primary mechanism for delivering freshwater to Sermilik Fjord. Time series of ice discharge for Helheim Glacier, Midgård Glacier, and Fenris Glacier were calculated from satellite-derived average surface velocity, glacier width, and estimated ice thickness, and fluctuations in terrestrial surface freshwater runoff were simulated based on observed meteorological data. These simulations were compared and bias corrected against independent glacier catchment runoff observations. Modeled runoff to Sermilik Fjord was variable, ranging from 2.9 ± 0.4×109 m3 y−1 in 1999 to 5.9 ± 0.9×109 m3 y−1 in 2005. The sub-catchment runoff of the Helheim Glacier region accounted for 25% of the total runoff to Sermilik Fjord. The runoff distribution from the different sub-catchments suggested a strong influence from the spatial variation in glacier coverage, indicating high runoff volumes, where glacier cover was present at low elevations.

Citation: Mernild, S. H., Howat, I. M., Ahn, Y., Liston, G. E., Steffen, K., Jakobsen, B. H., Hasholt, B., Fog, B., and van As, D.: Freshwater flux to Sermilik Fjord, SE Greenland, The Cryosphere, 4, 453-465,, 2010.
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