Simulating snow maps for Norway: description and statistical evaluation of the seNorge snow model Section for glaciers, snow and ice, Hydrology department, Norwegian water resources and energy directorate (NVE), Postboks 5091 Majorstua, 0301 Oslo, Norway
13 Nov 2012
Received: 29 February 2012 – Published in The Cryosphere Discuss.: 30 March 2012 Abstract. Daily maps of snow conditions have been produced in Norway with the seNorge
snow model since 2004. The seNorge snow model operates with 1 × 1 km
resolution, uses gridded observations of daily temperature and precipitation
as its input forcing, and simulates, among others, snow water equivalent
(SWE), snow depth (SD), and the snow bulk density (ρ). In this paper the
set of equations contained in the seNorge model code is described and a
thorough spatiotemporal statistical evaluation of the model performance from
1957–2011 is made using the two major sets of extensive in situ snow
measurements that exist for Norway. The evaluation results show that the
seNorge model generally overestimates both SWE and ρ, and that the
overestimation of SWE increases with elevation throughout the snow season.
However, the R2-values for model fit are 0.60 for (log-transformed)
SWE and 0.45 for ρ, indicating that after removal of the detected
systematic model biases (e.g. by recalibrating the model or expressing snow
conditions in relative units) the model performs rather well. The seNorge
model provides a relatively simple, not very data-demanding, yet nonetheless
process-based method to construct snow maps of high spatiotemporal
resolution. It is an especially well suited alternative for operational snow
mapping in regions with rugged topography and large spatiotemporal
variability in snow conditions, as is the case in the mountainous Norway.
Revised: 21 September 2012 – Accepted: 11 October 2012 – Published: 13 November 2012
Citation: Saloranta, T. M.: Simulating snow maps for Norway: description and statistical evaluation of the seNorge snow model, The Cryosphere, 6, 1323-1337, doi:10.5194/tc-6-1323-2012, 2012.