1Institute for Marine and Atmospheric Research, Utrecht University, Utrecht, the Netherlands
2Department of Geography, College of Science, Swansea University, Singleton Park, Swansea, SA2 8PP, UK
3Byrd Polar and Climate Research Center, Ohio State University, Ohio, USA
4Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland (GEUS), 1350 Copenhagen, Denmark
5Department of Geography, Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio, USA
6Desert Research Institute, University of Nevada, Reno, Nevada, USA
7Swiss Federal Research Institute WSL, Zürcherstrasse 111, 8903 Birmensdorf, Switzerland
8Department of Geosciences, University of Montana, Missoula, Montana, USA
9Department of Geology and Geophysics, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, Massachusetts, USA
Received: 08 Jun 2015 – Discussion started: 30 Jun 2015
Abstract. Observed changes in the surface elevation of the Greenland Ice Sheet are caused by ice dynamics, basal elevation change, basal melt, surface mass balance (SMB) variability, and by compaction of the overlying firn. The last two contributions are quantified here using a firn model that includes compaction, meltwater percolation, and refreezing. The model is forced with surface mass fluxes and temperature from a regional climate model for the period 1960–2014. The model results agree with observations of surface density, density profiles from 62 firn cores, and altimetric observations from regions where ice-dynamical surface height changes are likely small. In areas with strong surface melt, the firn model overestimates density. We find that the firn layer in the high interior is generally thickening slowly (1–5 cm yr−1). In the percolation and ablation areas, firn and SMB processes account for a surface elevation lowering of up to 20–50 cm yr−1. Most of this firn-induced marginal thinning is caused by an increase in melt since the mid-1990s and partly compensated by an increase in the accumulation of fresh snow around most of the ice sheet. The total firn and ice volume change between 1980 and 2014 is estimated at −3295 ± 1030 km3 due to firn and SMB changes, corresponding to an ice-sheet average thinning of 1.96 ± 0.61 m. Most of this volume decrease occurred after 1995. The computed changes in surface elevation can be used to partition altimetrically observed volume change into surface mass balance and ice-dynamically related mass changes.
Revised: 15 Oct 2015 – Accepted: 16 Oct 2015 – Published: 02 Nov 2015
Kuipers Munneke, P., Ligtenberg, S. R. M., Noël, B. P. Y., Howat, I. M., Box, J. E., Mosley-Thompson, E., McConnell, J. R., Steffen, K., Harper, J. T., Das, S. B., and van den Broeke, M. R.: Elevation change of the Greenland Ice Sheet due to surface mass balance and firn processes, 1960–2014, The Cryosphere, 9, 2009-2025, doi:10.5194/tc-9-2009-2015, 2015.