Verification of analysed and forecasted winter precipitation in complex terrain
Summary: Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) models are rarely verified for mountainous regions during the winter season, although avalanche forecasters and other decision makers frequently rely on NWP models. We verified two NWP models (GEM-LAM and GEM15) and a precipitation analysis system (CaPA) at approximately 100 stations in the mountains of western Canada and northwestern USA. Ultrasonic snow depth sensors and snow pillows were used to observe daily precipitation amounts.
The Cryosphere, 9, 587-601, doi:10.5194/tc-9-587-2015, 2015
Changes in the southeast Vatnajökull ice cap, Iceland, between ~ 1890 and 2010
The Cryosphere, 9, 565-585, doi:10.5194/tc-9-565-2015, 2015
Brief Communication: Contending estimates of 2003–2008 glacier mass balance over the Pamir–Karakoram–Himalaya
Summary: Based on satellite laser altimetry over the Pamir--Karakoram Himalaya we detect strongest elevation losses over east Nyainqentanglha Shan and Spiti--Lahaul but slight elevation gains over west Kunlun Shan rather than over Karakoram. The current sea-level contribution of Pamir--Karakoram Himalaya glaciers is about 10% of the total global contribution of glaciers outside the ice sheets. We also improve estimates of glacier imbalance contribution to river discharge in the Himalayas.
The Cryosphere, 9, 557-564, doi:10.5194/tc-9-557-2015, 2015
Influence of freshwater input on the skill of decadal forecast of sea ice in the Southern Ocean
The Cryosphere, 9, 541-556, doi:10.5194/tc-9-541-2015, 2015
Surface elevation and mass changes of all Swiss glaciers 1980–2010
The Cryosphere, 9, 525-540, doi:10.5194/tc-9-525-2015, 2015
Spatial patterns in glacier characteristics and area changes from 1962 to 2006 in the Kanchenjunga–Sikkim area, eastern Himalaya
Summary: An overall negative glacier surface area change of 0.5±0.2% yr-1 was observed for the eastern Himalaya since 1962 based on remote sensing data. There were higher rates of area loss for clean glaciers (-34%, or -0.7% yr-1) compared to debris-covered glaciers (-14.3% or -0.3 yr-1) on a glacier-by-glacier basis. Patterns of area change are heterogenous and depend on topographic and climatic factors, glacier altitude (maximum, median, altitudinal range), glacier size, slope and aspect.
The Cryosphere, 9, 505-523, doi:10.5194/tc-9-505-2015, 2015
Seasonal changes of ice surface characteristics and productivity in the ablation zone of the Greenland Ice Sheet
Summary: The Greenland Ice Sheet surface shows a diverse range of characteristics, and hosts active microbial communities in debris-rich ''cryoconite holes'' (CHs). Field and satellite data for a complete melt season revealed significant links between surface albedo, CH coverage and biological activity. This suggests satellites may be able to monitor CH biological processes. Nevertheless, caution is needed when extrapolating point measurements of biological processes to larger space and time scales.
The Cryosphere, 9, 487-504, doi:10.5194/tc-9-487-2015, 2015
Editorial: Organic carbon pools in permafrost regions on the Qinghai–Xizang (Tibetan) Plateau
The Cryosphere, 9, 479-486, doi:10.5194/tc-9-479-2015, 2015
Geophysical mapping of palsa peatland permafrost
Summary: Permafrost peatlands are hydrological and biogeochemical hotspots in discontinuous permafrost areas. We estimate the depths to the permafrost table surface and base across a peatland in northern Sweden using ground penetrating radar and electrical resistivity tomography. Seasonal frost tables, taliks, and the permafrost base could be detected. The results highlight the added value of combining techniques for assessing distributions of permafrost in the rapidly changing sporadic permafrost zone.
The Cryosphere, 9, 465-478, doi:10.5194/tc-9-465-2015, 2015
Snow-cover reconstruction methodology for mountainous regions based on historic in situ observations and recent remote sensing data
Summary: Spatially distributed snow-cover data are available only for the recent past from remote sensing. Sometimes we need snow-cover data over a longer period for climate impact analysis for the calibration/validation of hydrological models. In this study we present a methodology to reconstruct snow cover in the past using available long-term in situ data and recently available remote sensing snow-cover data. The results show about 85% accuracy although only a limited number of stations (7) were used.
The Cryosphere, 9, 451-463, doi:10.5194/tc-9-451-2015, 2015
Stratigraphy of Lake Vida, Antarctica: hydrologic implications of 27 m of ice
Summary: Lake Vida is one of the largest lakes in the McMurdo dry valleys, Antarctica, and has the thickest known ice cover of any lake on Earth. For the first time, Lake Vida was drilled to a depth of 27m. With depth the ice cover changes from freshwater ice to salty ice interspersed with thick sediment layers. It is hypothesized that the repetition of sediment layers in the ice will reveal climatic and hydrologic variability in the region over the last 1000--3000 years.
The Cryosphere, 9, 439-450, doi:10.5194/tc-9-439-2015, 2015
Low below-ground organic carbon storage in a subarctic Alpine permafrost environment
The Cryosphere, 9, 427-438, doi:10.5194/tc-9-427-2015, 2015
Large-area land surface simulations in heterogeneous terrain driven by global data sets: application to mountain permafrost
Summary: This paper demonstrates a new land surface modelling approach that uses globally available data sets to generate high-resolution simulation results of land surface processes. We successfully simulate a highly resolution-dependent variable, ground surface temperatures, over the entire Swiss Alps at high resolution. We use a large evaluation data set to test the model. We suggest that this scheme represents a useful step in application of numerical models over large areas in heterogeneous terrain.
The Cryosphere, 9, 411-426, doi:10.5194/tc-9-411-2015, 2015
Assessment of sea ice simulations in the CMIP5 models
Summary: We evaluated all CMIP5 sea-ice simulations with more metrics in both the Antarctic and the Arctic, in an attempt to provide the community a useful reference. Generally speaking, our study shows that the performance of an Arctic sea-ice simulation is better than that of an Antarctic sea-ice simulation, that sea-ice extent simulation is better than sea-ice volume simulation, and that mean-state simulation is better than long-term trend simulation.
The Cryosphere, 9, 399-409, doi:10.5194/tc-9-399-2015, 2015
Seismic wave propagation in anisotropic ice – Part 2: Effects of crystal anisotropy in geophysical data
The Cryosphere, 9, 385-398, doi:10.5194/tc-9-385-2015, 2015
Seismic wave propagation in anisotropic ice – Part 1: Elasticity tensor and derived quantities from ice-core properties
The Cryosphere, 9, 367-384, doi:10.5194/tc-9-367-2015, 2015
Comparing C- and L-band SAR images for sea ice motion estimation
Summary: Satellite radar images are used for detecting and quantifying the motion of sea ice. Traditionally C-band radar images have been used for this purpose. The technique has been shown to work with other frequency bands. This work compares C-band and L-band images for the Baltic Sea. We also show that two images of different bands can be used for sea ice motion estimation.
The Cryosphere, 9, 357-366, doi:10.5194/tc-9-357-2015, 2015
Seasonal changes in surface albedo of Himalayan glaciers from MODIS data and links with the annual mass balance
The Cryosphere, 9, 341-355, doi:10.5194/tc-9-341-2015, 2015
Measurements of light-absorbing particles on the glaciers in the Cordillera Blanca, Peru
Summary: This paper presents the results of 3 years of measurements of light absorbing particles on the glaciers in Peru. A new analysis technique has been developed and results are shown to be well correlated with black carbon mass estimates made with the Single Particle Soot Photometer (SP2) instrument, the state-of-the-art instrument for this type of measurement. Effective black carbon levels were found to be moderate on glaciers near cities and close to zero in more remote regions.
The Cryosphere, 9, 331-340, doi:10.5194/tc-9-331-2015, 2015
A 1-D modelling study of Arctic sea-ice salinity
The Cryosphere, 9, 305-329, doi:10.5194/tc-9-305-2015, 2015