Future permafrost conditions along environmental gradients in Zackenberg, Greenland
Summary: The development of ground temperatures in permafrost areas is influenced by many factors varying on different spatial and temporal scales. We present numerical simulations of ground temperatures for the Zackenberg valley in NE Greenland, which take into account the spatial variability of snow depths, surface and ground properties at a scale of 10m. The ensemble of the model grid cells suggests a spatial variability of annual average ground temperatures of up to 5°C.
The Cryosphere, 9, 719-735, doi:10.5194/tc-9-719-2015, 2015
Mass changes of Southern and Northern Inylchek Glacier, Central Tian Shan, Kyrgyzstan, during ∼1975 and 2007 derived from remote sensing data
Summary: Glacier velocity, glacier area, surface elevation and mass changes of the Southern and Northern Inylchek Glacier were investigated by using multi-temporal space-borne data sets. The mass balance of both SIG and NIG was negative(-0.43 ± 0.10 m w.e. a-1 and -0.25 ± 0.10 m w.e. a-1) from ~1975 to 2007. The thinning at the lake dam was higher, likely caused by calving into Lake Merzbacher. Thus, glacier thinning and glacier flow are significantly influenced by the lake.
The Cryosphere, 9, 703-717, doi:10.5194/tc-9-703-2015, 2015
Quantifying meltwater refreezing along a transect of sites on the Greenland ice sheet
Summary: On the Greenland Ice Sheet, a significant quantity of surface melt water refreezes after infiltrating into the cold underlying firn. This paper presents a new method for estimating the amount of water refreezing using temperature measurements. The method is applied to temperature data from a transect of 11 sites and the results provide some of the first measurement-based estimates of refreezing quantities which can be used to improve modeling and better understand the refreezing process.
The Cryosphere, 9, 691-701, doi:10.5194/tc-9-691-2015, 2015
Thermal structure and basal sliding parametrisation at Pine Island Glacier – a 3-D full-Stokes model study
The Cryosphere, 9, 675-690, doi:10.5194/tc-9-675-2015, 2015
On producing sea ice deformation data sets from SAR-derived sea ice motion
Summary: We present a new method to compute sea ice deformation fields from satellite-derived motion. The method particularly reduces the artificial noise that arises along discontinuities in the sea ice motion field. We estimate that this artificial noise may cause an overestimation of about 60% of sea ice opening and closing. The constant overestimation of the opening and closing could have led in previous studies to a large overestimation of freezing in leads, salt rejection and sea ice ridging.
The Cryosphere, 9, 663-673, doi:10.5194/tc-9-663-2015, 2015
Warming permafrost and active layer variability at Cime Bianche, Western European Alps
Summary: This study presents the thermal state and recent evolution of permafrost at Cime Bianche. The analysis reveals that (i) spatial variability of MAGST is greater than its interannual variability and is controlled by snow duration and air temperature during the snow-free period, (ii) the ALT has a pronounced spatial variability caused by a different subsurface ice and water content, and (iii) permafrost is warming at significant rates below 8m of depth.
The Cryosphere, 9, 647-661, doi:10.5194/tc-9-647-2015, 2015
Interaction of marine ice-sheet instabilities in two drainage basins: simple scaling of geometry and transition time
The Cryosphere, 9, 631-645, doi:10.5194/tc-9-631-2015, 2015
Configuration of the Northern Antarctic Peninsula Ice Sheet at LGM based on a new synthesis of seabed imagery
The Cryosphere, 9, 613-629, doi:10.5194/tc-9-613-2015, 2015
Self-regulation of ice flow varies across the ablation area in south-west Greenland
Summary: This paper addresses the feedback between ice flow and melt rates. Using 20 years of data covering the whole ablation area, we show that there is not a strong positive correlation between annual ice velocities and melt rates. Rapid variations around the equilibrium line indicate the possibility of rapid variations high on the ice sheet.
The Cryosphere, 9, 603-611, doi:10.5194/tc-9-603-2015, 2015
Verification of analysed and forecasted winter precipitation in complex terrain
Summary: Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) models are rarely verified for mountainous regions during the winter season, although avalanche forecasters and other decision makers frequently rely on NWP models. We verified two NWP models (GEM-LAM and GEM15) and a precipitation analysis system (CaPA) at approximately 100 stations in the mountains of western Canada and northwestern USA. Ultrasonic snow depth sensors and snow pillows were used to observe daily precipitation amounts.
The Cryosphere, 9, 587-601, doi:10.5194/tc-9-587-2015, 2015
Changes in the southeast Vatnajökull ice cap, Iceland, between ~ 1890 and 2010
The Cryosphere, 9, 565-585, doi:10.5194/tc-9-565-2015, 2015
Brief Communication: Contending estimates of 2003–2008 glacier mass balance over the Pamir–Karakoram–Himalaya
Summary: Based on satellite laser altimetry over the Pamir--Karakoram Himalaya we detect strongest elevation losses over east Nyainqentanglha Shan and Spiti--Lahaul but slight elevation gains over west Kunlun Shan rather than over Karakoram. The current sea-level contribution of Pamir--Karakoram Himalaya glaciers is about 10% of the total global contribution of glaciers outside the ice sheets. We also improve estimates of glacier imbalance contribution to river discharge in the Himalayas.
The Cryosphere, 9, 557-564, doi:10.5194/tc-9-557-2015, 2015
Influence of freshwater input on the skill of decadal forecast of sea ice in the Southern Ocean
The Cryosphere, 9, 541-556, doi:10.5194/tc-9-541-2015, 2015
Surface elevation and mass changes of all Swiss glaciers 1980–2010
The Cryosphere, 9, 525-540, doi:10.5194/tc-9-525-2015, 2015
Spatial patterns in glacier characteristics and area changes from 1962 to 2006 in the Kanchenjunga–Sikkim area, eastern Himalaya
Summary: An overall negative glacier surface area change of 0.5±0.2% yr-1 was observed for the eastern Himalaya since 1962 based on remote sensing data. There were higher rates of area loss for clean glaciers (-34%, or -0.7% yr-1) compared to debris-covered glaciers (-14.3% or -0.3 yr-1) on a glacier-by-glacier basis. Patterns of area change are heterogenous and depend on topographic and climatic factors, glacier altitude (maximum, median, altitudinal range), glacier size, slope and aspect.
The Cryosphere, 9, 505-523, doi:10.5194/tc-9-505-2015, 2015
Seasonal changes of ice surface characteristics and productivity in the ablation zone of the Greenland Ice Sheet
Summary: The Greenland Ice Sheet surface shows a diverse range of characteristics, and hosts active microbial communities in debris-rich ''cryoconite holes'' (CHs). Field and satellite data for a complete melt season revealed significant links between surface albedo, CH coverage and biological activity. This suggests satellites may be able to monitor CH biological processes. Nevertheless, caution is needed when extrapolating point measurements of biological processes to larger space and time scales.
The Cryosphere, 9, 487-504, doi:10.5194/tc-9-487-2015, 2015
Editorial: Organic carbon pools in permafrost regions on the Qinghai–Xizang (Tibetan) Plateau
The Cryosphere, 9, 479-486, doi:10.5194/tc-9-479-2015, 2015
Geophysical mapping of palsa peatland permafrost
Summary: Permafrost peatlands are hydrological and biogeochemical hotspots in discontinuous permafrost areas. We estimate the depths to the permafrost table surface and base across a peatland in northern Sweden using ground penetrating radar and electrical resistivity tomography. Seasonal frost tables, taliks, and the permafrost base could be detected. The results highlight the added value of combining techniques for assessing distributions of permafrost in the rapidly changing sporadic permafrost zone.
The Cryosphere, 9, 465-478, doi:10.5194/tc-9-465-2015, 2015
Snow-cover reconstruction methodology for mountainous regions based on historic in situ observations and recent remote sensing data
Summary: Spatially distributed snow-cover data are available only for the recent past from remote sensing. Sometimes we need snow-cover data over a longer period for climate impact analysis for the calibration/validation of hydrological models. In this study we present a methodology to reconstruct snow cover in the past using available long-term in situ data and recently available remote sensing snow-cover data. The results show about 85% accuracy although only a limited number of stations (7) were used.
The Cryosphere, 9, 451-463, doi:10.5194/tc-9-451-2015, 2015
Stratigraphy of Lake Vida, Antarctica: hydrologic implications of 27 m of ice
Summary: Lake Vida is one of the largest lakes in the McMurdo dry valleys, Antarctica, and has the thickest known ice cover of any lake on Earth. For the first time, Lake Vida was drilled to a depth of 27m. With depth the ice cover changes from freshwater ice to salty ice interspersed with thick sediment layers. It is hypothesized that the repetition of sediment layers in the ice will reveal climatic and hydrologic variability in the region over the last 1000--3000 years.
The Cryosphere, 9, 439-450, doi:10.5194/tc-9-439-2015, 2015