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The Cryosphere An interactive open-access journal of the European Geosciences Union
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Volume 12, issue 4
The Cryosphere, 12, 1157-1176, 2018
https://doi.org/10.5194/tc-12-1157-2018
© Author(s) 2018. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
The Cryosphere, 12, 1157-1176, 2018
https://doi.org/10.5194/tc-12-1157-2018
© Author(s) 2018. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.

Research article 04 Apr 2018

Research article | 04 Apr 2018

Canadian snow and sea ice: historical trends and projections

Lawrence R. Mudryk et al.
Data sets

MERRA-2 tavg1_2d_lnd_Nx: 2d, 1-Hourly, Time-Averaged, Single-Level, Assimilation, Land Surface Diagnostics V5.12.4 Global Modeling and Assimilation Office https://doi.org/10.5067/RKPHT8KC1Y1T

Regional charts: History, accuracy, and caveats Canadian Ice Service http://ice.ec.gc.ca/IA_DOC/cisads_no_001_e.pdf

MERRA-2 tavgM_2d_slv_Nx: 2d, Monthly mean, Time-Averaged, Single-Level, Assimilation, Single-Level Diagnostics V5.12.4 Global Modeling and Assimilation Office https://doi.org/10.5067/AP1B0BA5PD2K

MERRA-1 tavgM_2d_slv_Nx: MERRA 2D IAU Diagnostic, Single Level Meteorology, Monthly Mean V5.2.0 Global Modeling and Assimilation Office https://doi.org/10.5067/W3UEUC5V7M9M

ERA-Interim is a global atmospheric reanalysis from 1979, continuously updated in real time ERA-Interim http://www.ecmwf.int/en/research/climate-reanalysis/era-interim

Japanese 55-year Reanalysis (JRA-55) Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) http://jra.kishou.go.jp/JRA-55/index_en.html

Japanese 25-year ReAnalysis (JRA-25) Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) and the Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry (CRIEPI) http://jra.kishou.go.jp/JRA-25/index_en.html

The Climate Forecast System Reanalysis [1979–2010] NOAA/National Weather Service http://cfs.ncep.noaa.gov/cfsr/

Publications Copernicus
Short summary
This paper presents changes in both snow and sea ice that have occurred over Canada during the recent past and shows climate model estimates for future changes expected to occur by the year 2050. The historical changes of snow and sea ice are generally coherent and consistent with the regional history of temperature and precipitation changes. It is expected that snow and sea ice will continue to decrease in the future, declining by an additional 15–30 % from present day values by the year 2050.
This paper presents changes in both snow and sea ice that have occurred over Canada during the...
Citation