Journal cover Journal topic
The Cryosphere An interactive open-access journal of the European Geosciences Union
The Cryosphere, 7, 103-118, 2013
© Author(s) 2013. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
Research article
23 Jan 2013
Glacier changes and climate trends derived from multiple sources in the data scarce Cordillera Vilcanota region, southern Peruvian Andes
N. Salzmann1,2, C. Huggel1, M. Rohrer3, W. Silverio4, B. G. Mark5, P. Burns6, and C. Portocarrero7 1Department of Geography, University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland
2Department of Geosciences, University of Fribourg, Fribourg, Switzerland
3Meteodat GmbH, Technoparkstrasse 1, Zurich, Switzerland
4Institute for Environmental Science, Climate Ch ange and Climate Impact Group, University of Geneva, Geneva, Switzerland
5Department of Geography, Ohio State University, Columbus OH, USA
6College of Earth, Ocean and Atmospheric Sciences, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR, USA
7Independent Consultant, Huaraz, Peru, formerly at Unidad de Glaciología y Recursos Hídricos, Autoridad Nacional de Agua, Huaraz, Peru
Abstract. The role of glaciers as temporal water reservoirs is particularly pronounced in the (outer) tropics because of the very distinct wet/dry seasons. Rapid glacier retreat caused by climatic changes is thus a major concern, and decision makers demand urgently for regional/local glacier evolution trends, ice mass estimates and runoff assessments. However, in remote mountain areas, spatial and temporal data coverage is typically very scarce and this is further complicated by a high spatial and temporal variability in regions with complex topography. Here, we present an approach on how to deal with these constraints. For the Cordillera Vilcanota (southern Peruvian Andes), which is the second largest glacierized cordillera in Peru (after the Cordillera Blanca) and also comprises the Quelccaya Ice Cap, we assimilate a comprehensive multi-decadal collection of available glacier and climate data from multiple sources (satellite images, meteorological station data and climate reanalysis), and analyze them for respective changes in glacier area and volume and related trends in air temperature, precipitation and in a more general manner for specific humidity. While we found only marginal glacier changes between 1962 and 1985, there has been a massive ice loss since 1985 (about 30% of area and about 45% of volume). These high numbers corroborate studies from other glacierized cordilleras in Peru. The climate data show overall a moderate increase in air temperature, mostly weak and not significant trends for precipitation sums and probably cannot in full explain the observed substantial ice loss. Therefore, the likely increase of specific humidity in the upper troposphere, where the glaciers are located, is further discussed and we conclude that it played a major role in the observed massive ice loss of the Cordillera Vilcanota over the past decades.

Citation: Salzmann, N., Huggel, C., Rohrer, M., Silverio, W., Mark, B. G., Burns, P., and Portocarrero, C.: Glacier changes and climate trends derived from multiple sources in the data scarce Cordillera Vilcanota region, southern Peruvian Andes, The Cryosphere, 7, 103-118,, 2013.
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